Deliverables

All deliverables produced in the MACRO CASCADE project will be listed below.

D1.1 Based on the selective breeding of the selected species identification of the best combination of growth characteristics and content of value-added compounds (HOR; M36).

D1.2 Report on seasonal variation of value-added components in different types of macroalgae (ORF; M36).

D1.3 Demonstration of a durable and efficient harvesting system for large scale seaweed cultivation (HOR; M42).

D1.4 Review of environmental and legislative aspects of large-scale seaweed cultivation (COS; M48).

D2.1 Report of optimized conditioning process for seaweed (DTI; M18).

D2.2 Report on drying and semi drying algae biomass for storage of algae biomass for valorisation high-value-added products (DTI; M24).

D2.3 Report on biological and chemical ensiling techniques for storage of algae biomass for valorisation medium with value-added products (DTI; M27).

D2.4 Report detailing the results of long-term storage (DTI; M36).

D2.5 Report evaluating the feasibility of collecting the algae-juice during conditioning and pre-treatment (DTI; M36).

D3.1 Process of conversion of algae into nutritious feed additives with increased (25%) digestibility (FEX; M18).

D3.2 Process for production of algae enriched rapeseed-based feed for pigs (DTI; M24).

D3.3 Process for algae-based gut – health promoting (pre and probiotic effects) animal feed additives (DTU; M46).

D3.4 Report on process development for algal based food product (FEX; M20).

D3.5 Report on clinical effect on patients with selected chronic inflammatory bowel diseases, clinical and paraclinical response obtained from patient intake of algae-based food products (SIL; M41).

D4.1 Report on biorefinery approach based on sample composition (WR; M24).

D4.2 Protocol for production of alginate-rich fraction (WR; M36).

D4.3 Protocol for production of fucoidan-rich fraction (WR; M36).

D4.4 Protocol for production of mannitol and laminarin (WR; M24).

D4.5 Protocol for production of protein-rich fraction (WR; M36).

D4.6 Protocol for production of polyphenol (LUN; M36).

D5.1 Protocol on conversion of laminarin (from WP4) polysaccharides into branched immunomodulating β-glucan oligosaccharides (MATIS; M44).

D5.2 Protocol on the development of biocatalytic processes for conversion of alginate (from WP4) into unsaturated uronic acids for chemical industry (MATIS; M47).

D5.3 Protocol on the development of biocatalytic processes for conversion of fucoidan (from WP4) into bioactive fucoidan oligosaccharides (DTU; M40).

D5.4 Information on composition, and structure properties of macroalgal products of the consortium (WR; M45).

D6.1 Report defining the specific scope of the sustainability assessment, including identifying sustainability indicators and defining the scenarios to be assessed based on the production processes forming part of the other Work Packages (TNO; M12).

D6.2 Report with the techno economic analysis (TNO; M28).

D6.3 Report with the Social Aspects (ORF; M36).

D6.4 Evaluation of the environmental impact of the Macro Cascade scenarios (TNO; M36).

D6.5 Integrated sustainability assessment, providing the pros and cons and limitations of MacroCascade indicators and scenarios (TNO; M46).

D6.6 Business Model Canvas results and comparative SWOT and QSPM analyses for full exploitation of the project results (ORF; M46).

D7.1 Project online presence (incl. project website, newsletter, sciences blog and social media) (ORF; M4) Public.

D7.2 MACRO CASCADE dissemination, exploitation and IPR strategy paper (ORF; M6).

D7.3 Stakeholder engagement events and results’ evaluation reports (incl. inter-project meetings, Focus Group, Citizen Panel and MACRO CASCADE conferences) (ORF; M24) Public.

D7.4 Knowledge and data repository provided to relevant European platforms (incl. standards, norms, certifications and regulations relevant for MACRO CASCADE) (ORF; M12) Public.

D8.1 Project Management Collaborative Workspace (DTI; M4).

In the following an explanation about content, status, responsibility and dissemination level and is given for each deliverable:

D1.1 Based on the selective breeding of the selected species identification of the best combination of growth characteristics and content of value-added compounds (HOR; M36).

Status: in progress (deadline September 2019)

Responsible partner: Hortimare

Dissemination level: Confidential

D1.2 Report on seasonal variation of value-added components in different types of macroalgae (ORF; M36).

Status: in progress (deadline September 2019)

Responsible partner: Ocean Rainforest

Dissemination level: Confidential

D1.3 Demonstration of a durable and efficient harvesting system for large scale seaweed cultivation (HOR; M42).

Status: in progress (deadline March 2020)

Responsible partner: Hortimare

Dissemination level: Confidential

D1.4 Review of environmental and legislative aspects of large-scale seaweed cultivation (COS; M48).

Status: in progress (deadline September 2020)

Responsible partner: Eurofins

Dissemination level: Confidential

D2.1 Report of optimized conditioning process for seaweed (DTI; M18).

Summary: Deliverable 2.1 describes the conditioning of seaweed by screw pressing in both laboratory and pilot scale. Screw pressing of brown algae in laboratory used the approach to dewater the biomass by screw-pressing the brown seaweed species Saccharina latissima and Alaria esculenta, and green seaweed Ulva lactuca. The dry matter content after screw pressing in the solid fraction was increased significantly compared to fresh biomass, particularly for S. latissima with an increase from 13% to 25 %, and for U. lactuca from 15% to 28%. In terms of dry matter distribution between the two fractions, a very large proportion of the dry matter was obtained in the solid fraction for S. latissima with nearly 95 %. For A. esculenta, 72 % of the recovered dry matter was obtained in the solid fraction. The process was optimized from the study on the effect of acid pretreatment on the dewatering of S. latissima, which showed that soaking in 1 % HCl for one hour prior to screw-pressing could further increase the dry matter content of the solid fraction to 32%. Pretreating of U. lactuca by a shredder also showed improvement to the screw press process. Screw pressing of brown algae in pilot scale in the Faroe Islands focused on pre-treating of S. latissima with ensilage in order to aid a fermentation process and ensure that the Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) outcompete other microorganisms that are present. The first step was milling or shredding the algae to increase the surface area and accelerate decomposition by allowing the LAB to access the free sugar. Dewatering the biomass pulp by screw-pressing was intended to increase the dry matter content of the silage, thus improving stability and decrease transport weight. This was processed for 4 tons of S. latissima. For more information contact Lars Nicolaisen: bjerager@mail.tele.dk.

Status: Ready

Responsible partner: Danish Technological Institute

Dissemination level: Confidential

D2.2 Report on drying and semi drying algae biomass for storage of algae biomass for valorisation high-value-added products (DTI; M24).

Status: Ready

Responsible partner: Danish Technological Institute

Dissemination level: Confidential

D2.3 Report on biological and chemical ensiling techniques for storage of algae biomass for valorisation medium with value-added products (DTI; M27).

This Deliverable 2.2 describes the drying process in both laboratory, pilot and industrial scale. Drying kinetics seaweed for industrial processes is a balance between energy consumption, time, and preservation of carbon. In laboratory scale, drying temperature can be an important factor when quantifying seaweed compounds. Saccharina latissima harvested from the Faroe Islands by Ocean Rainforest was used to test the effect of oven drying at different temperatures on the drying time and identify thermosensitive compounds. Furthermore, an option of dewatering by pressing was explored for future study. Carbohydrates and proteins both seemed to be affected by increasing drying temperature, however lower temperature drying still retained some moisture in the sample. Screw pressing seaweed is an option that can aid in moisture reduction alongside drying. Screw pressing has previously explored for S. latissima, which is notoriously difficult in laboratory scale due to the viscous press juice. An option of dewatering by pressing was explored for future study. In pilot scale it is important for the quality of the algae to store the seaweed in the after-drying chamber until it is packed in air-tight food-grade plastic bags. Even dry seaweed will increase moisture content if it is stored in an open container in a raw and humid environment. Drying at industrial in this project has focused on the upstream processes of kelps and drying technologies based on industrial trials in Europe, some of which were carried out by ALGAIA with dryer manufacturers. The trials mainly refer to kelps harvested from wild stocks for alginate extraction and will provide guidance for cultivated kelps such as S. latissima or Alaria esculenta. We conclude by the fact that drying kelps is a challenge that involves numerous parameters and is one of the current limiting factors to the emerging seaweed farming industry in Europe. Various technologies have been proven sound to dry kelps, and we recommend the use of flash dryers or multipass conveyor dryers for a more cost-efficient technology, while other technologies appear to be inefficient in removing moisture from this challenging biomass. For more information contact Nicolaj Ma: nima@teknologisk.dk.

Status: Ready

Responsible partner: Danish Technological Institute

Dissemination level: Confidential

D2.4 Report detailing the results of long-term storage (DTI; M36).

Status: in progress (deadline September 2019)

Responsible partner: Danish Technological Institute

Dissemination level: Confidential

D2.5 Report evaluating the feasibility of collecting the algae-juice during conditioning and pre-treatment (DTI; M36).

Status: in progress (deadline September 2019)

Responsible partner: Danish Technological Institute

Dissemination level: Confidential

D3.1 Process of conversion of algae into nutritious feed additives with increased (25%) digestibility (FEX; M18).

Summary: The deliverable 3.1 report describes the process that was used to increase the digestibility of pig feed made out of seaweed and rapeseed meal. The material was treated using a 2-step lacto-fermentation ensilaging method. Our hypothesis was that lactic acid-fermentation had the potential to breakdown cell walls of seaweed to some extent, which in turn will make protein available for further hydrolysis and therefore would increase digestibility to a level higher than 25%. Fermentationexperts A/S identified and quantified several molecules of biological interest (amino acids, vitamins, glucose and lactic acid) in the raw seaweed and rapeseed starting material, and in the fermented material. This evaluation revealed that there is a considerable increase in glucose, lactic acid, free amino acids and vitamins when the seaweed is fermented. The digestibility was measured by comparing the average abundance in the raw materials with the average abundance in 7 fermentation batches. The digestibility of all compounds increased to more than 25% when fermented. Based on this we conclude the fermentation process that was tested is effective in releasing the nutritious potential of seaweed. Finally, we observed that grinding of the seaweed was needed for kick starting the bacteria’s ability to break down the cell walls. Not ground seaweed prolonged the fermentation period. For more information contact Jens Legarth: jel@fexp.eu

Status: Ready

Responsible partner: Fermentationexperts A/S

Dissemination level: Confidential

D3.2 Process for production of algae enriched rapeseed-based feed for pigs (DTI; M24).

Summary: The deliverable 3.2 report briefly describes the process for production of algae-enriched rapeseed-based feed for pigs, using a 2-step lacto-fermentation ensilaging method. Furthermore, compositional analyses and antioxidant assays of fermented and non-fermented material was described. We identified and quantified several molecules of biological interest (e.g. amino acids, organic acids and phenolic compounds) in fermented rapeseed and seaweed materiel, as well as in non-fermented material (in some cases). The presence of e.g. 4-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and 3-phenyllactic acid in fermented rapeseed and seaweed indicates that the fermentation process induces the formation/release of beneficial compounds. Furthermore, we compared antioxidant activity in fermented and non-fermented material: the nonfermented material exhibits higher antioxidant activity than two out of three fermented batches. For more information contact Anne-Belinda Bjerre: anbj@teknologisk.dk.

Status: Ready

Responsible partner: Danish Technological Institute

Dissemination level: Confidential

D3.3 Process for algae-based gut – health promoting (pre and probiotic effects) animal feed additives (DTU; M46).

Status: in progress (deadline July 2020)

Responsible partner: The Technical University of Denmark

Dissemination level: Confidential

D3.4 Report on process development for algal based food product (FEX; M20).

Status: Ready

Responsible partner: Fermentationexperts A/S

Dissemination level: Confidential

D3.5 Report on clinical effect on patients with selected chronic inflammatory bowel diseases, clinical and paraclinical response obtained from patient intake of algae-based food products (SIL; M41).

Summary: This deliverable 3.4 describes the process of fermenting rapeseed and seaweed in food grade. In addition, we investigated the potential of such fermented food product to reduce the inflammation response in human cells. Our hypothesis was that by fermenting seaweed and rapeseed meal with selected lactic acid bacteria, the composite of naturally present anti-inflammatory compounds will be enhanced and be able to reduce the inflammatory response in human cells significantly. For this purpose, we used markers for antigenic immune stimulation after addition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mature dendritic cells. Different solvents were tested to extract the bioactive compounds from the food grade fermented seaweed-rapeseed. The extracts were investigated using the ratio of interleukin secretion IL-12p40/IL-10. In parallel, bioactive composition was screened with GC-MS. This analysis found a vast array of phenolic compounds associated with beneficial metabolic activity in abundance (total phenolic compounds of interest 600 ± 85 mg/kg product). Furthermore, several long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were found in abundance. The inflammation study revealed a positive effect on the anti-inflammatory response as judged by the cytokine IL-12p40/IL-10 ratio. Extracts with 80% methanol and methanol:dichlormethane shown a statistically significant effect (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the positive effect significantly increased with increasing dose of fermented rapeseed-seaweed. This effect was repeatedly consistent (n = 8) in the two batches tested, extracted with 80% methanol. We conclude that lacto-fermentation of rapeseed-seaweed has the potential to be used as a food supplement to aid reduction of inflammation. However, a clinical study with patients with a chronic inflammation disease should be evaluated as a second step. For more information contact Kjærulff Søren: skj@fermbiotics.com.

Status: in progress (deadline May 2020)

Responsible partner: Regionshospitalet Silkeborg

Dissemination level: Confidential

D4.1 Report on biorefinery approach based on sample composition (WR; M24).

Summary: The composition of Saccharina latissima from the Faroe Islands that was harvested in May and stored in three different ways (frozen, air dried and ensiled) was determined for the change in chemical composition. Main difference between frozen, air dried and ensiled samples was observed for the mannitol content, which was zero for the ensiled sample, and which had also the lowest total carbohydrate content. Biorefinery schemes were developed for these fresh, air dried and ensiled seaweed samples based on the chemical composition and properties of the various target compounds. Focus was on water-based, scalable and industrially relevant methods. For this deliverable, alginate was regarded as main product with classical alginate extraction as benchmark procedure and the other target compounds as co-products. Mannitol and laminarin contents vary within the seasons and can best be extracted from seaweed with high contents of mannitol and laminarin (autumn harvest) and not from ensiled seaweed (no mannitol present) (see also Deliverable report 4.4). Further research within the Macro Cascade project will focus more on the other target compounds fucoidan and protein as main product. For more information contact Paulien Harmsen: paulien.harmsen@wur.nl.

Status: Ready

Responsible partner: Wageningen University & Research

Dissemination level: Confidential

D4.2 Protocol for production of alginate-rich fraction (WR; M36).

Status: in progress (deadline September 2019)

Responsible partner: Wageningen University & Research

Dissemination level: Confidential

D4.3 Protocol for production of fucoidan-rich fraction (WR; M36).

Status: in progress (deadline September 2019)

Responsible partner: Wageningen University & Research

Dissemination level: Confidential

D4.4 Protocol for production of mannitol and laminarin (WR; M24).

Summary: This deliverable 4.4 provides a protocol for the production of mannitol and laminarin from S. Latissima. The protocols are supported by experimental data and model data described in this report. Mannitol and laminarin are not part of the cell wall (in contrast to alginate, fucoidan and membrane proteins) and can be extracted relatively easily from seaweed. For this reason, the co-extraction of mannitol and laminarin is foreseen as one of the first steps in seaweed biorefinery. Exact conditions of optimal mannitol and laminarin extraction still needs to be confirmed by experimental data. For mannitol it is clear that a simple cold, fresh water washing already releases large part of the mannitol. Research questions should focus on mannitol yield and how to increase this, as we see that after a first washing step still mannitol is released in the following steps. In addition, research should focus on validation of proposed (water-based) mannitol isolation techniques like nanofiltration, reversed osmosis and crystallization. For laminarin it is a bit more complex, as laminarin extractions were done on seaweed samples low in laminarin content. Yields of laminarin were too low to say something about the optimal laminarin extraction conditions for S. Latissima from ORF. Further research on Autumn harvest samples should provide more insight in laminarin extraction. For more information contact Paulien Harmsen: paulien.harmsen@wur.nl.

Status: Ready

Responsible partner:

Dissemination level: Confidential

D4.5 Protocol for production of protein-rich fraction (WR; M36).

Status: in progress (deadline September 2019)

Responsible partner: Wageningen University & Research

Dissemination level: Confidential

D4.6 Protocol for production of polyphenol (LUN; M36).

Status: in progress (deadline September 2019)

Responsible partner: Lund University

Dissemination level: Confidential

D5.1 Protocol on conversion of laminarin (from WP4) polysaccharides into branched immunomodulating β-glucan oligosaccharides (MATIS; M44).

Status: in progress (deadline June 2020)

Responsible partner: Matis

Dissemination level: Confidential

D5.2 Protocol on the development of biocatalytic processes for conversion of alginate (from WP4) into unsaturated uronic acids for chemical industry (MATIS; M47).

Status: in progress (deadline September 2020)

Responsible partner: Matis

Dissemination level: Confidential

D5.3 Protocol on the development of biocatalytic processes for conversion of fucoidan (from WP4) into bioactive fucoidan oligosaccharides (DTU; M40).

Status: in progress (deadline February 2020)

Responsible partner: The Technical University of Denmark

Dissemination level: Confidential

D5.4 Information on composition, and structure properties of macroalgal products of the consortium (WR; M45).

Status: in progress (deadline July 2020)

Responsible partner: Wageningen University & Research

Dissemination level: Confidential

D6.1 Report defining the specific scope of the sustainability assessment, including identifying sustainability indicators and defining the scenarios to be assessed based on the production processes forming part of the other Work Packages (TNO; M12).

Summary: The Macro Cascade project aims at developing a cascading macroalgal biorefinery. This is a production platform that covers the full valorisation chain, starting from cultivation of sustainable macroalgal biomass (seaweed) up to the production of highly processed, value added products. The concept aims at processing two species of seaweed towards producing a diversity of value-added products for the food & feed, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals industry.

The objective of the WP6 is to give an assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of the technology, to assess the environmental impact aspects as well as the social impact of the cultivation and production of value-added components from seaweeds. This deliverable report D6.1 presents the starting points of the study, methodology and criteria that will be used for this assessment and provides a description of the main products aimed for in Macro Cascade. In addition, this report discusses milestone M6.1 ‘Sustainability analysis criteria set’. For more information contact Jan Wilco Dijkstra: jan_wilco.dijkstra@tno.nl.

Status: Ready

Responsible partner: Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands

Dissemination level: Confidential

D6.2 Report with the techno economic analysis (TNO; M28).

Status: Draft ready

Responsible partner: TNO

Dissemination level: Confidential

D6.3 Report with the Social Aspects (ORF; M36).

Status: in progress (deadline September 2019)

Responsible partner: Ocean Rainforest

Dissemination level: Confidential

D6.4 Evaluation of the environmental impact of the Macro Cascade scenarios (TNO; M36).

Status: in progress (deadline September 2019)

Responsible partner: TNO

Dissemination level: Confidential

D6.5 Integrated sustainability assessment, providing the pros and cons and limitations of MacroCascade indicators and scenarios (TNO; M46).

Status: in progress (deadline July 2020)

Responsible partner: TNO

Dissemination level: Confidential

D6.6 Business Model Canvas results and comparative SWOT and QSPM analyses for full exploitation of the project results (ORF; M46).

Status: in progress (deadline July 2020)

Responsible partner: Ocean Rainforest

Dissemination level: Confidential

D7.1 Project online presence (incl. project website, newsletter, sciences blog and social media) (ORF; M4).

Summary: This deliverable 7.1. relates to Task 7.2: “Set up dissemination channels and material”. The work is planned for 3 months (M1-M3) and partner ORF is responsible for the work and deliverable on project online presence (incl. project website, newsletter, sciences blog and social media). The webpage will be the key reference point for communicating to the general public that the MacroCascade project exists and disseminate what the project has done in terms of deliverables (reports etc.). Furthermore, the webpage will bring news about how the project will be commercially exploited within the bio-based industry in Europe. The domain names www.macrocascade.eu and www.macrocascade.com have been acquired for the next five years. Several meetings have been held to specify the content of the page, page structure, identify target users, online user services (e.g. subscribe on newsletters, on-line feed from twitter etc.), security policy, user interfaces etc. ORF provides text and illustrations for the page, and a subcontractor will make the web page operational and ready for online launching. Macro Cascade has established its presence on LinkedIn, Facebook and Twitter, and this social media platform will be used to generate traffic into the Macro Cascade webpage – and thereby make the content on the webpage useful for interested parties. Dissemination in terms of pier reviewed scientific publications, patent filing or other intellectual property activities, are not included in this task. Information about these project activities, including project deliverable assigned as Public, will be communicated based on available material from WP leaders and project partners. ORF will ensure that all information is checked for potential intellectual property rights before publication. MacroCascade has issued its first newsletter, the first poster has been produced, a brochure is under production and the online Science blog will be launched together with the project webpage. For more information contact Ólavur Gregersen: olavur@oceanrainforest.com.

Status: Ready

Responsible partner: Ocean Rainforest

Dissemination level: Public

D7.2 MACRO CASCADE dissemination, exploitation and IPR strategy paper (ORF; M6).

Summary: The MACRO CASCADE project’s Dissemination and Exploitation Plan sets the communication strategy, including goals, target groups, main messages and strategies. This document defines the indicators for the monitoring process and the measures to be taken in case of a communication crisis. In particular, this plan details the activities needed to spread the project’s results and the new knowledge created, among partners, to the main target user groups and to other stakeholders. The lead users will be European start-up companies within seaweed cultivation, aquaculture (finfish, mussels) with an interest in bioremediation, regional and European policymakers and administrators within standards and spatial planning, industrial end-users and adaptors as well as environmental NGOs. Furthermore, public authorities will be able to use the outcomes, e.g. in developing and adapting regulations and in setting strategic policies for enhancing the overall competitiveness and performance of the European fisheries and aquaculture sectors. The mix of internal and external actions will ensure consistency in the activities and in reaching the target groups. Planned actions cover a wide range of fields, an active website, four fully operative social network profiles (Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, YouTube), press releases scheduled for every major project outcome, participation in several events and a wide array of promotional material (e.g., brochures, leaflets, posters, videos, newsletters). For more information contact Ólavur Gregersen: olavur@oceanrainforest.com.

Status: Ready

Responsible partner: Ocean Rainforest

Dissemination level: Confidential

D7.3 Stakeholder engagement events and results’ evaluation reports (incl. inter-project meetings, Focus Group, Citizen Panel and MACRO CASCADE conferences) (ORF; M24).

Status: Delayed

Responsible partner: Ocean Rainforest

Dissemination level: Confidential

For more information contact Ólavur Gregersen: olavur@oceanrainforest.com.

D7.4 Knowledge and data repository provided to relevant European platforms (incl. standards, norms, certifications and regulations relevant for MACRO CASCADE) (ORF; M12).

Summary: In H2020 data management and re-use is be very important, and all projects are encouraged to join the H2020 Open Research Data Pilot. The goal is to make research data FAIR: Findable, Accessible, Interoperable and Reusable. To fulfill the requirements related to participation in the Open Research Data program, it is necessary to develop a “Data Management Plan” (DMP). Deliverable 7.4 describes how MacroCascade will organize the Data Management Plan and on-line sharing of generated knowledge. DTI, supported by ORF, will evaluate newly generated knowledge within MacroCascade for its potential to be shared with the relevant EU knowledge and stakeholder platforms. For more information contact Ólavur Gregersen: olavur@oceanrainforest.com.

Status: Ready

Responsible partner: Ocean Rainforest

Dissemination level: Public

D8.1 Project Management Collaborative Workspace (DTI; M4).

Status: Ready

Responsible partner: Danish Technological Institute

Dissemination level: Confidential

For more information contact Anne-Belinda Bjerre: anbj@teknologisk.dk.

 

 

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